What Is An ECU?
The electronic control unit (ECU) used in today’s cars and trucks is used to control the engine and other components’ functions. An ECU is a computer with internal pre-programmed and programmable computer chips that is not much different from a home computer or laptop. The vehicle’s engine computer ECU is used to operate the engine by using input sensors and output components to control all engine functions. ECU’s come in many different makes,shapes and sizes. Here is a list of the most popular ECU brands used in UK cars
- EEC V1
What Does The ECU Do?
The ECU needs inputs from vehicle sensors like the crankshaft sensor and camshaft sensors to compute the information using a program that has been stored in the ECU on a programmable memory chip. The ECU program will use the inputted sensor information to compute the needed output like the amount of fuel injected and when to spark the coil in order to start the engine.
There are different ECUs used for different systems on the vehicle. The different ECUs used can be for the transmission, traction control or ABS, AC, body functions and lighting control, engine, air bags, or any other system a vehicle may have. Some vehicles may incorporate more than one ECU into a single unit called a powertrain control module (PCM). These units can be an advantage by having more modules in one location but may be a disadvantage by adding longer wires to reach the component it operates.
Most newer vehicles have started using a communication line between different modules on a vehicle so they can share information and redundant sensors do not have to be used. For instance, a speed sensor at a wheel detects the wheel speed and will be an input to the anti-lock brake module (ABS) ECU. Instead of sending many wires from the one sensor to other ECUs, the ABS ECU will share the information on the network communication lines to all the ECUs that use the information, like a transmission for its shifting of gears, the speedometer to show the speed of the vehicle, or the suspension system to control the suspension as needed.
The use of sharing input sensors throughout the vehicle using only two data lines between ECUs has cut the amount of wiring used in the vehicles. Sharing information between modules also means they need a common language between them so they can operate as a group. When one computer goes down or does not share information due to an error, then it may affect other modules if they need the sensor input from the failed module.
The engine ECU in most vehicles is connected to the onboard diagnostic connector and will relay all diagnostic information on this line to all the other modules or ECUs. This reduces the amount of wire needed and you do not need to go to each ECU when wanting to test them.
Where Can I Find/Locate My ECU?
Locating/Finding your ECU is really dependant on the cars make and model. This information can be found relitivley easy on the internet. We have compiled a list of all the common makes of veichle in the UK and put the locations of the cars ECU. This will get updated regulary.
On most models the ECU is located beneath the wipers behind the plastic trim. Audi R8 has 2x ECU’s located in the rear engine bay
Continental GT Under Plastic Panel at N/S/R of engine bay x 2 ECUs
Generally is located Under Bonnet behind panel at rear of fuse box In plastic box next to battery
Citroen AX, CS, SAXO, XANTIA, XSARA, ZX Under Bonnet in engine bay
Fiat COUPE DUCATTO, MAREA, MULTIPLA, PUNTO Inside car, passenger front foot well Under Bonnet in engine bay
Ford ESCORT, FOCUS FIESTA GALAXY MONDEO PROBE SIERRA, TRANSIT Under plastic side trim in drivers side front foot well Under glove box on passenger side Next to battery Inside car, above pedals Inside car, behind centre console Inside vehicle, behind glove box New Ford Diesel Models â€“ N/S/F Wheel Arch inside plastic box
Honda CIVIC, PRELUDE Passenger front foot well under carpet or above glove compartment
Hyundai COUPE Passenger front footwall under carpet
Isuzu TROOPER Inside Vehicle on passenger side
In plastic box next to battery Inside Vehicle under driver’s seat. In plastic box next to battery In plastic box next to battery Range rover Sport are Behind battery N/S/R of engine bay
Mazda 6 and most other models are Underneath carpet in passenger side foot well. RX8 Inside plastic box O/S/F Of engine bay
Evo models are Above glove box passenger side. Shogun/L200 are Above Passenger side outer kick panel
Nissan S13 / 300zx Inside car, behind centre console Passenger front foot well under carpet Navara pre 2005 are Behind centre console Navara 2005> are O/S/R Of engine bay X-Trial Above Glove Compartment, 350z, 370z under bonnet
Peugeot 106, 206, 306, 307, 405 & 406 205,309 Under Bonnet in engine bay or Inside car over steering column
Rover 200, 25D, 45D, 75D Under bonnet on passenger’s side
Renault 19, MEGANE, ESPACE CLIO, TRAFFIC 21 TURBO Under bonnet on drivers side Under bonnet Under bonnet near battery
On most models the ECU is located beneath the wipers behind the plastic trim.
On most models the ECU is located beneath the wipers behind the plastic trim.
Impreza models Beneath carpet passenger side foot well
Suzuki SWIFT, BALENO, VITARA Inside car above pedals or behind glove box
On most models the ECU is located beneath the wipers behind the plastic trim
T5, T4 ECU is located under the battery tray under the bonnet.
Vectra models, under plastic trim and cover in o/s/r of engine bay New Vectra Models Are located at the front of the Drivers side Wheel arch Vehicle Selector. Zafira models the ecu is located in the passenger front wheel arch towards the front bumper
What ECU Make & Model Version Do I Have?
Once you have located and removed your ECU you will most likely like to know what make and model ECU you have. On the ECU there will be a sticker with the Make and some serial numbers. Every ECU has its own format for identifying the ECU’s model. Another way is to use the 2x PDF files below and locate your cars, make, model and it will list your ECU brand and model. If you are unsure on your cars make and model use our FREE VRM tool located in the websites footer. Just enter your cars registration number.
What Is An EGR (Engine Gas Recirculation)?
EGR valves help all cars run more efficiently and completely burn fuel by recirculating a portion of your exhausts emissions and running these emissions through the combustion process again. This process results in a more complete burn of fuel, which then decreases your cars noxious emissions by prohibiting the release via the exhaust of some harmful gasses.
Why Do EGR Valves Fail?
The EGR is designed to open and close (normally electronically) at certain times through the rev range, but these valves get clogged up with carbon deposits, which can make them a fail, or even get stuck altogether either open or closed.
Every engine is different but symptoms can vary from poor idling speed, knocking, loss of power, engine unresponsive, black smoke from the exhaust pipe, and the engine management light coming on. If not dealt with, this can lead to turbo damage, a very expensive part when compared to the cost of an EGR replacement. Some theories of failure range from, poor quality electronics used by some manufacturers to the extended service intervals now in place. Should you experience any of these symptoms, contact us we may have the permanent answer to these re-occurring issues.
How Do I Solve The Issue?
By remapping and deleting your EGR valve you can make your cars engine run a lot better because when the EGR valve was in operation the ECU could prepare for the valve opening and alter the fuel and spark making a delay in detonation, but if the EGR valve is not in operation then the ECU will not alter the fuel and spark meaning there is no delay leading to a smoother running engine. Deleting the EGR valve via a remap is basically coding the ECU to not open the EGR valve ever, meaning any issues caused by the EGR valve are ruled out because it will never be used. This means that you dont need to actually remove the EGR valve which would cost a lot of money. Also if you come to Layton Remaps for an EGR removal there will be a nominal price for a remap.
- Possible fault codes: P0400 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Malfunction) may mean that one or more of the following has happened:
The EGR passage is plugged restricting the flow of exhaust gases, EGR solenoid is faulty, Faulty EGR wiring/harness or the vacuum lines are damaged or disconnected from the solenoid or valve.
- P0401 (Insufficient EGR Flow) most likely means one or more of the following has happened:
The DPFE (differential pressure feedback EGR) sensor is faulty and needs to be replaced, there is a blockage in the EGR (tube) most likely carbon build up, The EGR valve is faulty or The EGR valve may not be opening due to a lack of vacuum.
- P0402 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow (EGR) Excessive Detected) most likely means one or more of the following has happened:
- The DPFE (differential pressure) sensor is faulty and needs to be replaced, there is a blockage in the EGR (most likely carbon build up), the EGR valve is faulty, The EGR valve may not be opening due to a lack of vacuum.
- P0403 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Malfunction) could be any of the following:
Bad EGR solenoid, Excessive resistance in control circuit (PCM controlled ground) due to an open, chafing or damage to the harness, Poor connection at the EGR solenoid harness (worn or loose pins), Water intrusion at the EGR solenoid harness, Blockage in EGR control solenoid holding solenoid open or closed causing excessive resistance, Loss of supply voltage to EGR solenoid, Bad PCM (Powertrain control module).
- P0404 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Circuit Range/Performance) Usually this code points to either carbon build up or a bad EGR valve. However that doesnt rule out the following:
Open or short in the 5 Volt reference circuit, Open or short in the ground circuit, Open or short in the PCM controlled voltage circuit, Bad PCM (less likely).
- P0405 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit Low) Potential causes include:
Short to ground in EGR signal or Reference circuits, Short to voltage in EGR ground or signal circuits, Bad EGR valve, Bad PCM wiring issues due to chafing or loose terminals.
- P0406 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit High) Potential causes include:
EGR sensor signal circuit shorted to B+ (battery voltage), EGR sensor signal circuit shorted to the 5 volt reference circuit to EGR, EGR sensor ground circuit open, EGR sensor signal circuit open, Bad EGR (internal failure on EGR sensor or solenoid), Debris caught in valve and holding it open or closed.
- P0407 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit Low) This code has basically the same causes as code P0405
- P0408 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor B Circuit High) This code has basically the same causes as code P0406
- P0409 (Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor “A” Circuit)Potential causes include:
Defective EGR sensor, Defect in the wiring harness to the sensor, EGR pintle stuck in the closed position and a build-up of carbon is preventing it from opening, Lack of vacuum to the EGR solenoid, Defective EGR solenoid, Defective EGR position sensor, Defective differential pressure feedback EGR sensor
Most modern Diesel cars now come with a DPF, but what does this mean for you?
Exhaust emissions standards introduced by Euro 5 in 2009 mean that all new diesel cars sold since then (and some before) have been fitted with a DPF (diesel particulate filter). The DPF helps to reduce the emissions of harmful particulates such as soot by up to 80 per cent. However, the technology has been controversial, with some car owners claiming that they have been faced with hugely expensive repairs bills when the DPF goes wrong and roadside assistance regularly called out to vehicles experiencing a partial blockage of the DPF.
The efficient functioning of the DPF can be affected by your driving habits. A DPF can mean that diesel cars are not necessarily the best option for those living and mostly driving in urban environments and making lots of short, stop-start journeys.
The DPF is essentially a trapping mechanism which captures soot as it travels through the car’s exhaust system and stops it being released into the air. Like all filters the DPF needs to be cleaned on a regular basis, a process called regeneration. This is carried out by burning the soot off the filter at high temperatures, leaving a tiny residue of ash behind.
DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) Regeneration
There are two forms of regeneration used by modern diesel cars: passive and active. In passive regeneration, the process is carried out automatically when the car is driven at higher speeds such as on motorways or faster A roads. However, as many cars rarely make this kind of journey, manufacturers have had to develop an active form of regeneration, a task designated to the car’s ECU (engine management system).
Active regeneration occurs when the ECU senses that the filter has reached a specified limit, such as 45 per cent of its capacity. The system then begins a post combustion process of fuel injection which raises the temperature of the exhaust system to force regeneration to take place.
However this system can also be problematic as active regeneration takes time to complete. If the car comes to a stop during the regeneration process the cycle fails. This can cause a DPF warning light to be illuminated on the car’s dashboard indicating a partial blockage of the filter. Similarly using the wrong engine oil or driving with insufficient fuel can have the same effect. More modern diesel cars may include a special additive to facilitate regeneration, so you need to keep an eye on the level of the additive tank.
Incomplete regeneration cycles can cause the deterioration of engine oil, as the unused fuel injected to start the process drains off into the sump. If you notice an increase in your oil level or receive an oil warning, DPF regeneration interruption could be the cause.
You can manually stimulate the regeneration process by driving at a minimum speed of 40mph for about ten minutes, to give the mechanism time to complete its cycle and clear the DPF warning light. Alternatively, drive with the revs at least at 2000rpm for 5-10 minutes to produce a higher running temperature.
Don’t Ignore Warning Lights
What does a DPF warning light look like? This can be found in your cars manual. Here is a picture of a DPF warning light. Some people mistake them for an EML (Engine managment light) Which on ocassions both can be illumintaed.
A failure to respond to the DPF warning light means that the filter will continue to collect soot. When it reaches about 75 per cent, other warning lights will appear on the dashboard and the car’s performance will be restricted. At this point a more complicated unblocking process will be necessary to clear the filter, which must be carried out by a mechanic. Should the filter reach a capacity of about 85 per cent, the filter will need to be removed for manual cleaning or replaced altogether, which can cost £1,000 or more.
Most DPFs should be good for 100,000 miles of motoring but, this is entirley down to driving style, short trips, long trips, and fuel.
Whats The Difference Between Chip Tuning And ECU Remapping?
ECU Remapping Is The Most Commomnly Used Term For Tuning A Car.
What is the difference between Chip Tuning and ECU Remapping? The difference is basically the age of the techniques used to obtain the cars “map file”. Now days you are very unlikely to get your car “chipped” due to the evolution of electronics and chips themselves. Basically, chip tuning is on older approach while remapping is a more modern approach.
Chip tuning or most commonly known as “Chipping” is the old way of increasing a car’s performance and economy, used on cars built before 2000. ECU remapping is the modern term, and the modern way of doing the same thing chipping does for older cars.
Remapping a cars ECU is carrying out the same process as chip tuning, but does so without actually chipping the car. All cars built before the year 2000, to modify a car you would physically be opening the vehicle’s electronic control unit (ECU) and taking out the chip (Eeprom) to manually tune and reconfigure the engine map file, and then replacing it into the car, usually via a soldering method. This procedure is allot riskier than remapping, but no problem for a skilled chip tuner.
Now due to evolution of electronics and software we are able to things much safer, and much more effective with ECU remapping. Using the cars OBD port fitted in cars post 2000, we can now hook up to the diagnostics port (OBD port) in your vehicle with our Kess, or MPPS, and with our specialist software and expert analysis, we can remap and re-programme your ECU without any invasive techniques.
Having your car remapped or chip tuned by Layton Remaps will always be a safe bet, because we always back up all the software and data of your cars ECU, so should you change your mind or experience any issues, we can either revert to the factory settings, or re-do the ECU remapping, to get perfect performance and efficiency for you.
So, if you’re wanting to increase your car’s performance and efficiency, and you’re driving a car built before 2000 then you will need a chip tune. If you’re driving a car after 2000, then you need ECU remapping. There aren’t many tuning companies about that still offer chip tuning but here at Layton remaps we offer both. At Layton Remaps we’re all about the latest and best technology, and that’s why we’re experts in ECU remapping but on occasions we are required to chip tune due to the age of your vehicle. Layton Remaps Chip tune all over the westmidlands covering Worcester, Reddicth, Bromsgrove, Birmingham, Pershore, Evesham, Cheltenham, Hereford and Malvern.
Below is a picture of Layton Remaps Chip tuning a 2004 Volvo XC90 2.4VD, ECU was a BOSCH EDC15C11 which had a 44pin AM29F400BT chip. We removed the chip, placed it into our chip reader and backed up the cars map file. The file was then adjusted for a power map. We erased the chip then wrote the new modified map file to the chip. Once the chip was wrote we prepared the ECU’s PCB and re-soldered the chip back to the board. Another successful chip tune by Layton Remaps in worcester
What Is Remapping And What Exactly Do You Do?
Layton Remaps link to the vehicles ECU or ‘brain’ with a laptop PC through the vehicles OBD (Onboard Diagnostic) socket and read the current engine management file which is then sent to Quantum Tuning and custom optimised for your vehicle. Layton Remaps Technician then programs the new Quantum optimised file into your vehicle and you then have opportunity for yourself to experience the amazing results. On some vehicles it is not possible to carry-out this function be the diagnostic socket so in this case the ECU is removed and either a chip change or boot loading function is carried out, direct into the ECU. The final effect is exactly the same, only the process is different. Depending on the vehicle, the chip tuning normally takes less than 1 hour to complete the re-map. You can choose to visit one of our dealers, our head office in Iver or, dependent on area we can visit you at your home, office.
Is It Safe? Can It Damage My Veichle?
Our Layton Re-mapping process enhances and optimise the power of the engine within safe limits, not beyond them. Extra power will also result in fewer gear changes. Manufacturers have to build in a tolerance for the parts in the engine, to manage the effect of wear and tear, production variations, and to ensure their warranty claims during their warranty period normally 3 years, are kept to a minimum.
Most race and rally engines are pushed for every last bhp, and thus they more common to fail, whilst normal car/van/lorry engines are limited back, well away from probability of multiple failures. Each individual engine is different as in how much it can be pushed in a remap, but a good ecu remap from a quality ecu tuner will never get close the limits of component failure.
You will see that the top companies within the market place have all develop vehicle improvements to similar outputs. Beware of tuners who claim significantly more, it’s either lies hoping that the average customer wouldn’t be able to tell the difference, or the engine is being pushed too hard and will quickly become unreliable.
Why Dont Car Manufacturers Do It from Factory?
Manufacturers generally sell one vehicle that covers various markets, with different tax and emissions regulations; different climates with extremes of heat, cold, humidity; different fuel quantities; different operating altitudes, etc. A manufacturer has to take all of these factors into consideration and make substantial compromises in the vehicles operation.
Sales and marketing also have a big affect on the way an engine is mapped. If you look the in manufacturer brochure at the engine specs, the torque graph will rise, then flatten out on a straight line, and then drop off. This obviously isn’t how an engine breathes, and it’s the request of sales and marketing to produce this flat lining of the torque. Why? Well it’s about having better torque figures than the competition and about local market taxation laws.
Will I Get A Warranty?
A professionally tuned engine will not cause technical faults with a well serviced and maintained the engine. In the extremely unlikely event of a problem we will 100% stand by the quality of our product, should any fault be assessed to have been caused by the upgrade.
What Is Remapping?
you want to tune your diesel vehicle and still keep the vehicles safety
and durability functions for the engine/transmission/ESP intact, the
only way to tune a diesel vehicle is to make changes in the existing
control system of the engine.
That is exactly what Layton Remaps offer with Quantum Software. Quantums tuning process has total control over all parameters at any moment, and we don’t disturb the safety functions of the car, by deceiving the system.
Apart from an obvious power, torque and fuel economy benefits you get the following advantages with a Quantum remap:
- The Quantum Software is installed within the hour, normally without lifting the bonnet
- Nothing needs to be connected to the vehicle after tuning to get the benefits
- No loose boxes and wiring flexes in the engine compartment
- Torque comes soft and smooth
- Torque is adjusted/limited on lower gears (to avoid damage on the transmission)
- Boost pressure and air flow is optimised
- The original settings can be reinstalled if required
- On board computer shows correct fuel consumption
- Anti skid program (ESP) function is fully retained
- Torque reduction when shifting gear (for comfort and durability) is retained
- Regeneration (emptying) of diesel particle filter (DPF) is retained optimal
- Correct calculation of exhaust temperature
- Correct calculation of service interval
- The diagnostic system is retained
- No enlarged NOx, HC, CO, CO2, Soot emissions compared with original when going for MOT and servicing
Do You Offer A Trial Period Or Money Back?
We are very confident that your Layton Remap running Quantum Software will both improve your driving experience and save you substantially on fuel. But, don’t take our word for it, try the upgrade for 30 days and if you are not delighted with the results we will take it off and give you a full refund.
Do I Need To Tell My Insurance Company?
We advise that it is your responsibility to inform your insurance Company of any modification to your vehicle. We are finding that more and more insurance companies are not penalising their customers for saving fuel and recognise our economy upgrades. We can provide a certificate of conformity if required.
Do You Keep A Copy Of My Original File?
Yes, in secure archival storage, should you ever require your vehicle to put back to original.
Will A Remap Affect My Manufactures Warranty?
Some manufactures diagnostic equipment may detect a remap. Additionally many forward thinking manufacturers turn a blind eye to a quality remapping service , knowing that a properly enhanced vehicle can only ever benefit them. The official line from most manufacturers is that if a modification causes a problem with the vehicle, then the part of the vehicle affected will not be covered under warranty, this does not mean a unilateral cancelling of the whole warranty.
Ho Does A Remap Improve My Veichle?
A full Layton Remap Runing Quantum software alters the fuel, boost and torque characteristics of the engine. By controlling the fuel pressure, injected fuel quantity, maximum permissible visible smoke limit, boost pressure from the turbocharger and the torque characteristic.
Quantum software offers a fully controllable change to the engine characteristics, whilst still operating with full engine feedback control and within all the preset engine sensor limits.
Ive Seen Diesel Tuning Boxes, What Do They Do, And How Are They Different To A Remap?
We do not fit add-on tuning boxes, which normally just interfere with engine management signals to trick the injectors into adding more fuel. Our service is a custom re-map of your ECU, specifically for your vehicle.
These differ from how a remap works. A tuning box relies on the principal of more diesel fuel = more diesel power. That theory is correct and boxes do increase power, but they can’t control the amount of black smoke (maximum permissible visible smoke limit) coming out the exhaust.
Too much smoke is undesirable, both environmentally and visually. More importantly, the black smoke is un-burnt diesel fuel attached to combustion chamber, with deposits exiting straight out the exhaust pipe, thus wasting fuel which hasn’t had any effect on power gain. The results are raised emissions, a higher thermal load on the engine (i.e. exhaust temperature) and frequently defects such as “bucking” are often the result. It should be clear what this means for your engine.”
In a modern engine there are complex engine control systems that cooperate with each other to make everything work perfectly. A diesel box manipulates some signals in order to either increase the injection time or fuel pressure. Unfortunately this manipulation is done entirely without the engine control system’s knowledge. This means that a diesel box tricks the engine control system of the vehicle and the consequence is that a large amount of values and control data will be incorrect, resulting in:
- The on board trip computer shows improved fuel consumption, but the real amount left in the tank is less, as fuel is being injected without any of the sensors detecting the additional amount entering the cylinder.
- The anti skid program (ESP) is disturbed because of incorrect torque value
- No loose boxes and wiring flexes in the engine compartment
- The automatic gearboxes get incorrect torque value
- Torque reduction when shifting gear (for comfort and durability) is not retained
- The regeneration (emptying) of particle filter will not be optimal
- The calculation of exhaust temperature is disturbed
- The calculation of service interval is disturbed
- The diagnostic system is disturbed
Layton Remaps are always receiving phone calls from people asking whether or not a remap can damage a vehicle’s engine? So, we’ve written this blog post to describe how a remap can affect your engine and a remap would suit your needs.
Knowing The ECU And How It Works
The electronic control unit (ECU) is your car’s computer. The ECU controls a variety of systems within the engine, including air-fuel ratio, ignition timing, idle speed, variable valve timing and valve control, in real-time through information received by sensors such as the AFR sensor, LAMBDA sensor, throttle sensor and MAP sensor.
The ECU’s original software is designed by the vehicle manufacturer, and pre-defined parameters allow the ECU to interpret information received by sensors as normal or faulty. So, for example if there is a fault with the car’s air-fuel ratio, the AFR sensor will communicate this to the ECU, and the ECU will then relay this information you with a check engine light on the instrument cluster.
The Problem With OEM ECU Software
The ECU’s original software has loose parameters. These parameters are so because the OEM must design software that takes into account poor fuel quality, a lack of servicing and general neglect. Put simply, the original software is designed for a worst-case scenario. This is a problem, because here in the UK we have really good fuel (even the supermarket stuff is decent) and no petrol head neglects their car. So that worst-case scenario never comes into play, yet the vehicle is running as if it’s being neglected.
How Remapping Works
is the process of modifying the ECU’s existing software code or
replacing it with entirely new software, so that it’s optimised for the
best-case scenario. The way the ECU works, is most cars have two
important points on their map – idle and part throttle cruising. All of
the points in between are controlled by your car’s ECU in a
predetermined pattern. A remap alters this pattern, so the car is no
longer being controlled by the OEMs generic software. So, depending on
the engine being tuned, boost pressure, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio
and fuel pressure calibrations (among others) are changed.
Is this safe?
Yes, if the code is altered properly. No two vehicles are the same, and no two engines are the same. In our case, we have remapped thousands of cars, vans, trucks, tractors and a wide range of agricultural machinery and we can categorically say that remapping is a safe modification. We’ve remapped brand new cars fresh from the dealership and owners have reported no issues whatsoever in tens of thousands of miles driving.
You need to have your car tuned by a reputable, competent tuning company that can vouch for their tuning through research. It also helps if they have a long list of glowing reviews and testimonials. All remaps replace the stock calibrations to maximise engine performance by burning the air/fuel mixture as efficiently as possible, but not all are created equal.
It’s also important to bear in mind that with increased power and torque comes greater responsibility – you will be putting more stress on the engine and drivetrain if you drive around at full throttle all of the time. That’s why many people choose to uprate a number of other vehicle components, such as the intercooler and ignition pack, to boost longevity for track days. There’s no need for you to do the same with your daily driver, if you look after your vehicle and drive it ‘normally’.
If your still unsure then give us a call or comment on our Facebook page and one of our technicians will be able to answer any questions you have.